Router Installation and Configuration Manual/Using the Interface Statistics (stats) Program

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This chapter describes how to use the real-time interface statistics program (stats) on the ImageStream router. The stats program allows you to access detailed information about the LAN, WAN and virtual interfaces on an ImageStream router in an easy-to-use, real-time layout.
This chapter describes the basic operation of the stats program, including the summary, detail, and CSU/DSU screen and sorting options and includes the following topics:
  • Understanding the summary screen
  • Understanding the detail screen
  • Understanding the CSU/DSU detail screen
After logging in, the main menu is displayed (your menu may look slightly different):
     ISis-Router main menu 
     1. Configuration menu 
     2. Show interface status 
     3. Advanced 
     4. Router software management 
     5. Backup/Restore 
     6. halt/reboot 
     0. Log off 
Select menu option 2, Show interface status, and press Enter. This will display a screen with one-line summaries of each interface and subinterface in your system.


Contents

Understanding the Summary Screen

2. Show interface status
To display "Show interface status" select menu option 2 and press Enter. The router displaying the summary statistics screen (your exact display will differ):
17:27:21	         Interface Summary	                                  router
#   Port	Description          Encaps       Bandwidth	   HW   Proto   In   Out
 0 Ethernet0   100Mb Ethernet       100baseTx-FD 100.00 Mbit      up    up      3%   2%
 1 Serial0     ISis PCI 604-T1 Port 0                            down  shut
 2 Serial1     ISis PCI 604-T1 Port 1                            down  shut
 3 Serial2     Qwest T1             Cisco HDLC   1.54 Mbit        up    up     18%  41%
 4 Serial3     Qwest T1             Cisco HDLC   1.54 Mbit        up    up     20%  41%
 5 Serial4     ISis PCI 522-T1 Port Frame Relay  1.54 Mbit        up    up     63%  19%
 6   Serial 4.1     Sprint T1                    1.54 Mbit        up    up     63%  19%
 7 Serial5     ISis PCI 522-T1 Port Frame Relay  1.54 Mbit        up   down    00:00:12   
 8   Serial5.1     Office to TNT                 1.54 Mbit        up   down    00:00:12
 9 Bonder0     Qwest T1s            none         3.07 Mbit        up    up     19%  41%  
d Detail | s Sleep interval | n Next | p Previous | h Help | q Quit 
Each line of the output is described below, beginning with the first line:
17:27:21 - The current system time. This time stamp is updated according to the Sleep interval. The default interval is 3 seconds.
Interface Summary - A label indicating that you are viewing the summary screen.
router - The hostname configured on the router.
Line two contains the column labels explaining the statistics output.
# - Indicates the line number in the summary output. When selecting the detail option, you will be prompted for this line number.
Port - This column shows the name of the corresponding device configured in the interface configuration file (wan.conf) file.
Description - This column shows the value configured by the description keyword (if any) in the interface configuration file (wan.conf) file. A default description is displayed if one has not been manually configured.
Encapsulation - Displays the configured encapsulation for the device. Ethernet devices will show the configured or negotiated link speed, according to the Ethernet port's MII registers. Devices that have not been configured or that are administratively shut down will not display a value. Bonder and other special devices will not display a value.
Bandwidth - Indicates the bandwidth value or channel group configured in the interface configuration file (wan.conf) or learned from the integrated CSU/DSU on the port. Devices that have not been configured or that are administratively shut down will not display a value. Bonder devices will display the combined bandwidth of all active bonded devices.
HW - Indicates whether or not the interface hardware connection to the telephone company network or external CSU/DSU is active. If a carrier signal is detected on the line, this column will display up. If carrier is not detected on the line, or if the interface has not been configured or administratively shut down, the column will display down.
Proto - Indicates whether the software processes that handle the device's protocol consider the line usable (that is, whether keepalives are successful) or if it has been taken down by an administrator. If a usable connection has been established, this column will display up. If a connection has not been established, the column will display down. If the device is administratively shut down, the column will display shut. Pro6tocols, such as rawip or frame-relay ietf with LMI disabled, will always display up if the hardware connection is up.
In/Out - Displays the amount of traffic currently on the interface. The percentage displayed is calculated using the sleep interval and bandwidth value on the interface. If the device has not been up since the router was booted or the SAND service started, the columns will display never up. If the device is administratively shut down, the columns will not display any values. If the hardware or protocol is down on the device, the length of time since the device's status changed to down will be displayed in the columns.
For example, we will examine lines 2, 3 and 8:
2   Serial1      ISis PCI 604-T1 Port 1         down                              shut
Line number and  Default description field. No  No encapsulation or               Interface is administratively down 
device name      value is set in wan.conf       bandwidth, since device is not    (shutdown command used in
                                                enabled.                          wan.conf, or port left unconfigured).

3   Serial2      Qwest T1                       Cisco HDLC    1.54 Mbit            up     up 	     18% 	41% 
Line number and  Configured value from Serial2  Cisco HDLC encapsulation. 	    Both the carrier Current inbound and
device name      section in wan.conf                                               signal and the   outbound traffic
                                                Bandwidth determined from          HDLC protocol    percentages
                                                integrated CSU/DSU or              keepalives are   
                                                bandwidth keyword.                 detected.

8   Serial5.1    Office to TNT                                1.54 Mbit            up     down      00:00:12
Line number and  Configured value from          No encapsulation, since device     Frame relay protocol keepalives are
subinterface     Serial5.1 section in wan.conf  is a frame relay subinterface.     not detected, and line protocol is
name                                            Bandwidth is learned from the 	    down.  In the above example, the
                                                master interface.                  line has been down for 12 seconds.  


The last line of output on the summary screen displays commonly used commands:
d Detail | s Sleep interval | n Next | p Previous | h Help | q Quit
d Detail - Pressing d on the keyboard and entering a line number at the prompt will display the detailed statistical and configuration information for the port. See "Understanding the detail screen" for more information.
s Sleep interval - Pressing s on the keyboard and entering a time interval in seconds at the prompt will set the interval between screen updates. The default interval is 3 seconds, meaning that the statistics will be updated and the screen refreshed every 3 seconds.
n Next | p Previous - If your router has more interfaces than the terminal can display on a single page, these options will appear. Pressing 'n 'on the keyboard will advance the display to the next page of summary information, if any. Pressing 'p' on the keyword will return the display to the previous page of summary information, if any. If all of the router interfaces are displayed on the page, these options will not appear.
h Help - Pressing 'h' on the keyboard and entering a line number at the prompt will display a screen listing all of the available commands in the interface statistics program.
q Quit - Pressing 'q' on the keyboard will exit the interface statistics program and return you to the router menu.

Understanding the Detail Screen for Ethernet Devices

Selecting 'd' and choosing an interface number, when prompted, will result in the summary screen displaying the detailed statistical and configuration information for that particular device (your display will differ):
18:40:44	      Ethernet0 Detail	      lab1
Ethernet0 is   up , protocol is   up
     Description	: 100Mb Ethernet
     Encapsulation	: 100baseTx-FD
     IP address	: 192.168.100.140 255.255.255.0
     Broadcast address : 192.168.100.255 
     Link status: Link beat established 
     Auto-negotiation: disabled (Forced speed is 100 Mbps, full-duplex)
     Partner capabilities: 100baseTx-FD, 100baseTx, 10baseT-FD, 10baseT 
     Bandwidth: 100.00 Mbit   Load in:	0% Load out:	0%
     3 second average input rate :	0.94 Kb/s,	117.91 B/s, 2 packets/s
     3 second average output rate:	3.40 Kb/s,	0.42 KB/s, 1 packets/s
          Rx Packets	8,797	764,424 bytes
          Tx Packets	8,145	4,326,005 bytes
          Rx Errors: 0	(0 CRC	0 frame	0 fifo	0 dropped)
          Tx Errors: 0	(0 collisions	0 fifo	0 dropped)
c CSU | y Summary | n Next | p Previous | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
The last line of output on the detail screen displays commonly used commands:
c CSU | y Summary | n Next | p Previous | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
c CSU - Pressing 'c' on the keyboard will display the detailed statistical information for the integrated CSU/DSU on a port. Selecting this option for an Ethernet device will display a "CSU statistics not available" message.
y Summary - Pressing 'y' on the keyboard will return you to the statistical summary output. See "Understanding the summary screen" for more information.
n Next | p Previous - Pressing 'n' on the keyboard will advance the display to the next interface in the router, if any. Pressing 'p' on the keyword will return the display to the previous interface in the router, if any.
h Help - Pressing 'h' on the keyboard and entering a line number at the prompt will display a screen listing all of the available commands in the interface statistics program.
z Zero - Pressing 'z' on the keyboard will temporarily clear the statistics on the interface. This will only clear the output until you quit the interface statistics program.
q Quit - Pressing 'q' on the keyboard will exit the interface statistics program and return you to the router menu.
v View traffic - Pressing 'v' on the keyboard will bring up a menu of options for viewing real-time traffic on the interface. See "Viewing traffic" for more information.
The table below shows the significant fields in the example display above.
Field Description
Ethernet is {up | down} Indicates whether the interface hardware is currently active (whether a link beat is present).
protocol is {up | down | administratively down} Indicates whether the Ethernet device's MII registers consider the line usable (that is, whether a link has been established).
Description Displays the value of the description parameter specified in the interface configuration file (wan.conf) or a default description for the port.
Encapsulation Displays the link speed and duplex configuration negotiated or set in the Ethernet device's MII registers.
IP address Indicates the Internet address and subnet mask configured on the interface in the interface configuration file (wan.conf).
Broadcast address Specifies the broadcast address determined by the IP address/netmask combination configured on the interface.
Link status Displays the MII link status of the Ethernet interfaces. This status should correspond to the link status indication on the connected device.
Auto-negotiation Displays enabled and the negotiated value when MII negotiation is enabled on the port. Displays disabled and the forced configuration speed when MII negotiation is disabled on the port.
Partner capabilities Displays the MII-advertised capabilities of the connected devices.
Bandwidth Indicates the value of the bandwidth parameter that has been determined automatically by autonegotiation or a forced configuration.

Load in Indicates the inbound load on the interface as a fraction of the bandwidth, calculated as an average over the current sleep interval.

Load out Indicates the outbound load on the interface as a fraction of the bandwidth, calculated as an average over the current sleep interval
__ second average input rate Indicates the actual inbound data rate load on the interface, calculated as an average over the specified sleep interval
__ second average output rate Indicates the actual outbound data rate load on the interface, calculated as an average over the specified sleep interval
Rx/Tx Packets Displays the total number of error-free packets received/sent by the system and total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation in the error-free packets received/sent by the system.
Rx/Tx Errors Displays the total number of no buffer(fifo), CRC, frame, overrun, ignored, and abort error counts recorded on the interface.
CRC Indicates the number of cyclic redundancy checksum errors generated by the originating station or far-end device that did not match the checksum calculated from the data received. On a serial link, CRC's usually indicate noise, gain hits, or other transmission problems.
Frame Indicates the number of packets received with a CRC error and a non-integer number of octets. On a serial line, this is usually the result of noise or other transmission problems.
Fifo Indicates the number of received packets discarded because there was no buffer space in the main system.
dropped Indicates the number of received packets ignored by the interface because the interface hardware ran low on internal buffers.
Collisions Indicates the number of packet collisions detected by the interface on the connected Ethernet network. Normally, collisions will only occur on an interface running in halfduplex mode.

Understanding the Detail Screen for Other Devices

Selecting 'd' and choosing an interface number, when prompted, will result in the summary screen displaying the detailed statistical and configuration information for that particular device (your display will differ):
18:08:37	      Serial2 Detail	      router
Serial2 is   up , protocol is   up
     Description	: Qwest T1
     Encapsulation	: Cisco HDLC
     IP address	: 63.148.112.74 255.255.255.252
     Broadcast address : 63.148.112.75
     Line has been up since Mon Oct 28 14:59:54 2002 (1w3h)
     Last input :	00:00:00	Last output:	00:00:00
     Bandwidth:	1.54 Mbit   Load in:	23% Load out:	37%
     3 second average input rate :	354.58 Kb/s,	44.32 KB/s, 112 packets/s
     3 second average output rate:	0.57 Mb/s,	71.64 KB/s, 142 packets/s
          Rx Packets	265,482,595	7,851,846 bytes
          Tx Packets	378,208,552	388,020,255 bytes
          Rx Errors: 0	(0 CRC	235 frame	0 fifo	333 dropped)
          Tx Errors: 0	(0 collisions	0 fifo	0 dropped)
          Carrier transitions 7 
          DCD =   up   DSR =   n/a DTR =   n/a RTS =   n/a CTS =   n/a 
c CSU | y Summary | n Next | p Previous | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
The last line of output on the detail screen displays commonly used commands:
c CSU | y Summary | n Next | p Previous | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
has already been explained in the previous section.


The table below shows the significant fields in the example display above.
Field Description
Serial2 is {up | down} Indicates whether the interface hardware is currently active (whether a carrier signal is present).
protocol is {up | down | administratively down} Indicates whether the software processes that handle the line protocol consider the line usable (that is, whether keepalives are successful) or if it has been taken down by an administrator.
Description Displays the value of the description parameter specified in the interface configuration file (wan.conf) or a default description for the port.
MTU Displays the maximum transmission unit of the interface.
Encapsulation Displays the encapsulation method configured on the interface.
IP address Indicates the Internet address and subnet mask configured on the interface in the interface configuration file (wan.conf).
Broadcast address Specifies the broadcast address determined by the IP address/netmask combination configured on the interface.
Line has been { up | down } since __ Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the status of the interface last changed. When the number of hours since the last status change exceeds 24 hours, the number of days and hours is displayed in parenthesis. If the number of days exceeds 7, the number of weeks, days and hours is displayed in parenthesis. Interfaces that have never been up will specify "Line has not been up since the drivers were loaded."
Last input Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully received by an interface.
Last output Number of hours, minutes, and seconds since the last packet was successfully transmitted by an interface.
Bandwidth Indicates the value of the bandwidth parameter that has been configured for the interface or that has been determined automatically. If the interface is attached to a serial line with a line speed that does not match the default, use the bandwidth command in the interface configuration file

(wan.conf) to specify the correct line speed for this serial line.

Load in Indicates the inbound load on the interface as a fraction of the bandwidth, calculated as an average over the current sleep

interval.

Load out Indicates the outbound load on the interface as a fraction of the bandwidth, calculated as an average over the current sleep interval
__ second average input rate Indicates the actual inbound data rate load on the interface, calculated as an average over the specified sleep interval
__ second average output rate Indicates the actual outbound data rate load on the interface, calculated as an average over the specified sleep interval
Rx/Tx Packets Displays the total number of error-free packets received/sent by the system and total number of bytes, including data and MAC encapsulation in the error-free packets received/sent by the system.
Rx/Tx Errors Displays the total number of no buffer (fifo), CRC, frame, overrun, ignored, and abort error counts recorded on the interface.
CRC Indicates the number of cyclic redundancy checksum errors generated by the originating station or far-end device that did not match the checksum calculated from the data received. On a serial link, CRCs usually indicate noise, gain hits, or other transmission problems.
frame Indicates the number of packets received with a CRC error and a non-integer number of octets. On a serial line, this is usually the result of noise or other transmission problems.
fifo Indicates the number of received packets discarded because there was no buffer space in the main system.
dropped Indicates the number of received packets ignored by the interface because the interface hardware ran low on internal buffers.
Carrier transitions Indicates the number of times the carrier signal of an interface has changed state. For example, if data carrier detect (DCD) goes down and comes up, the carrier transition counter will increment two times. Indicates line problems if the carrier signal is changing state often.
DCD/DSR/DTR/RTS/CTS Displays the status of signals tracked by the serial card or integrated CSU/DSU. If a signal is not tracked by the interface, the signal will display "N/A".


Understanding the CSU/DSU Detail Screen for Other Devices

Selecting c on the detail screen will display the detailed statistical information for the integrated CSU/DSU on that particular device. Not all CSU/DSUs provide statistical reporting. It is not possible to modify the sleep interval for the CSU/DSU detail screen. The sleep interval is fixed at 15 seconds (your display will differ):
19:02:22	      Serial0.1 CSU Statistics	      router
Firmware version: 0.14 
CSU self test: no failures 
Rx status: no alarms 
Tx status: no alarms 
Far end CSU status: normal 
Loopback: csu will respond to loop up command, not currently looped up 
Statistics for current interval (2 seconds elapsed): 
                  Errored seconds: 0	Controlled slip seconds: 0
           Bursty errored seconds: 0	Degraded minutes: 0
         Severely errored seconds: 0	Path code violations: 0
         Severely errored framing seconds: 0	Line errored seconds: 0
              Unavailable seconds: 0	Line code violations: 0
Line status information: 
The line appears to be up. 
y Summary | d Detail | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
The last line of output on the detail screen displays commonly used commands:
y Summary | d Detail | z Zero | h Help | q Quit 
y Summary - Pressing 'y' on the keyboard will return you to the statistical summary output. See "Understanding the Summary Screen" for more information.
d Detail - Pressing 'd' on the keyboard and entering a line number at the prompt will display the detailed statistical and configuration information for the port. See "Understanding the Detail Screen" for more information.
z Zero - Pressing 'z' on the keyboard will temporarily clear the statistics on the interface. This will only clear the output until you quit the interface statistics program.
h Help - Pressing 'h' on the keyboard and entering a line number at the prompt will display a screen listing all of the available commands in the interface statistics program.
q Quit - Pressing 'q' on the keyboard will exit the interface statistics program and return you to the router menu.
The table below shows the significant fields in the example display above.
Field Description
Firmware version Displays the software version of the integrated CSU/DSU. This software version does not correspond to the installed router distribution and is not user serviceable.
CSU self-test Indicates whether or not the CSU/DSU passed its internal test when first initialized. If the test has failed, contact ImageStream technical support for assistance.
Rx status Displays any active alarms on the CSU/DSU's receiver. Displays no alarms under normal operation. The status is generally only affected by local cabling between the CSU/DSU and telephone company demarcation point.
Tx status Displays any active alarms on the CSU/DSU's transmitter. Displays no alarms under normal operation. The status is generally only affected by local cabling between the CSU/DSU and telephone company demarcation point.
Far end CSU status Displays any active alarms reported by the remote CSU/DSU. Remote CSU/DSUs that do not support performance monitoring will cause a PRM - Performance monitoring failure message to be displayed. This error alone will not affect the operation of the CSU/DSU.
Loopback Indicates the loop status of the CSU/DSU. Will display Looped when the CSU/DSU is placed into remote loopback mode by a remote CSU/DSU or other test equipment.
Errored seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with one or more errored blocks of any type.
Bursty errored seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with at least one errored block but less than 320 CRC errors.
Severely errored seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with more than 320 errored blocks (T1/E1) or 44 errored blocks(DS3/E3).
Severely errored framing seconds

The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with one or more Out Of Frame (OOF) errors.

Unavailable seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with a Loss Of Signal (LOS) error or periods that are a part of 10 consecutive severely errored seconds.
Controlled slip seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval with replication or deletion of the payload bits in a frame. Generally, this error indicates there is a synchronization problem between the line signal and the CSU/DSU.
Degraded minutes and Path code violations The number of 1-minute periods where the number of errors exceeds 1,000,000. The number of CRC or frame synchronization errors in the current interval.
Line errored seconds The number of 1-second periods within the current interval in which one or more Line Code Violations (LCV's) are detected.
Line code violations The number of Bipolar Violations (BPV's), or the occurrence of a pulse of the same polarity as the previous pulse, and Excessive Zeros (EXZ) errors, or the occurrence of more than 7 contiguous zero's (15 in AMI encoding), detected.
Line status information Messages generated by SAND to assist in troubleshooting alarm and error conditions.

Returning to the Main Menu

Press 'q' to return to the router's main menu at any time while in the interface statistics program. The router then will display the Main menu:
ISis-Router main menu 
1. Configuration menu 
2. Show interface status 
3. Advanced 
4. Router software management 
5. Backup/Restore 
6. halt/reboot 
0. Log off
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