Router Installation and Configuration Manual/Helpful Tools

From ImageStream Router Documentation

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(RJ48 Loopback Plug for testing DDS, T1 and E1 CSU/DSU's)
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:http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/basic_quagga - This tool generates a quagga BGP configuration file for you based on a few simple questions. '''Still in Beta'''
:http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/basic_quagga - This tool generates a quagga BGP configuration file for you based on a few simple questions. '''Still in Beta'''
:http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/mikrotik - This tool generates a wan.conf, iptables, and quagga BGP configuration files based on the config file from your mikrotik router. '''Still in Beta'''
:http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/mikrotik - This tool generates a wan.conf, iptables, and quagga BGP configuration files based on the config file from your mikrotik router. '''Still in Beta'''
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===Packet flow inside the Linux Kernel===
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[[Image:PacketFlow.png]]

Revision as of 19:04, 26 October 2010

This chapter presents some helpful tools for use in configuring and troubleshooting your ImageStream Router.

Contents

Netmask Conversion Table

Bitmask (Bits) Dotted Decimal Netmask Hexadecimal Netmask Binary Netmask
/0 0.0.0.0 0x00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/1 128.0.0.0 0x80000000 10000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/2 192.0.0.0 0xc0000000 11000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/3 224.0.0.0 0xe0000000 11100000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/4 240.0.0.0 0xf0000000 11110000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/5 248.0.0.0 0xf8000000 11111000 00000000 00000000 00000000
/6 252.0.0.0 0xfc000000 11111100 00000000 00000000 00000000
/7 254.0.0.0 0xfe000000 11111110 00000000 00000000 00000000
/8 255.0.0.0 0xff000000 11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000
/9 255.128.0.0 0xff800000 11111111 10000000 00000000 00000000
/10 255.192.0.0 0xffc00000 11111111 11000000 00000000 00000000
/11 255.224.0.0 0xffe00000 11111111 11100000 00000000 00000000
/12 255.240.0.0 0xfff00000 11111111 11110000 00000000 00000000
/13 255.248.0.0 0xfff80000 11111111 11111000 00000000 00000000
/14 255.252.0.0 0xfffc0000 11111111 11111100 00000000 00000000
/15 255.254.0.0 0xfffe0000 11111111 11111110 00000000 00000000
/16 255.255.0.0 0xffff0000 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000
/17 255.255.128.0 0xffff8000 11111111 11111111 10000000 00000000
/18 255.255.192.0 0xffffc000 11111111 11111111 11000000 00000000
/19 255.255.224.0 0xffffe000 11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000
/20 255.255.240.0 0xfffff000 11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000
/21 255.255.248.0 0xfffff800 11111111 11111111 11111000 00000000
/22 255.255.252.0 0xfffffc00 11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000
/23 255.255.254.0 0xfffffe00 11111111 11111111 11111110 00000000
/24 255.255.255.0 0xffffff00 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
/25 255.255.255.128 0xffffff80 11111111 11111111 11111111 10000000
/26 255.255.255.192 0xffffffc0 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000
/27 255.255.255.224 0xffffffe0 11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000
/28 255.255.255.240 0xfffffff0 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000
/29 255.255.255.248 0xfffffff8 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000
/30 255.255.255.252 0xfffffffc 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111100
/31 255.255.255.254 0xfffffffe 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111110
/32 255.255.255.255 0xffffffff 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111

RJ48 Loopback Plug for testing DDS, T1 and E1 CSU/DSU's

The Crossover(Loopback) cable is a RJ48C cable, optionally supplied. The crossover cable is used to connect two CSU/DSU's together.
Rj48 Loop BAck Plugs.png


Figure C-1, RJ48 Loop Back Plugs
The RJ48 Loop back plug on the left is for use with DDS(56Kbps) Circuits the one on the right is to be used with T1/Fractional T1 Circuits and E1/Fractional E1 Circuits only. Failure to use the right plug on your particular equipment may result in damage to the device(s).

T1 Line Basics

What Is A T1 Line?

A T1 line is a digital transmission line capable of 1.544 Million bits per second (Mbps).
T1 lines normally carry 24 voice or data channels. Each channel has a sample rate of 8kHz with a resolution of 8 bits of data per sample. Every 192 bits of the transmission a framing bit is added.
  • 24 Voice/Data Channels
  • 8 kHz Sample Rate
  • 8 Bits per Sample
  • 1 Framing Bit per 192 Data bits
  • 24 Channels x 8 Data Bits + 1 Framing Bit = 193 Bits per Frame
  • 193 Bits per Frame x 8,000 Frames per Second = 1,544,000 Total Bits per Second

How Can A T1 Be Used?

T1s can be used to connect two distant PBX's together to form a single functioning PBX's. T1s are also used to form a bridge between two Local Area Networks (LAN's). In this way one single Wide Area Network (WAN) is formed. A single T1 line can be used for both PBX's and digital data at the same time by dedicating channels to each task. Other variations of service include fractional T1. Fractional T1 is a reduced number of channels leased from the service provider. The transmission rates vary from 56Kbps to 1.544Mbps.

What is a CSU/DSU?

A Channel Service Unit (CSU)/Data Service Unit (DSU) is a device used to terminate a digital service such as a T1 or E1. The CSU/DSU maintains records on different types of line errors and provides functions for line conditioning, line equalization, and loopback modes. These functions can be accessed from the main office of the service provider to maintain line quality.

What Needs to be Configured for a CSU to Work?

The T1 service provider will inform the customer what settings should be set for their specific service. The service provider will specify the line build out (LBO= 0, -7.5, -15 dB), framing type (D4 or ESF), network line code (B8ZS or AMI), pulse density enforcing (AMI only), and the signaling mode (ATT54016 or ANSI T1.403) used to configure the CSU. For a fractional T1, the service provider must also specify the active channels (DS0s).

AMI Versus B8ZS Line Coding

When using AMI (alternate mark inversion) mode with non-inverted data, a problem arises when a series of zeros is sent across the transmission line. These zeros prevent the receiver, who relies on clock edges for sync, from establishing a proper sync. There are two ways to correct this problem.
1. AMI Mode with Inverted HDLC Data
If the network (external CSU, carrier, etc.) can AMI mode with inverted HDLC data, the N2csu can be placed in INVERT HDLC DATA mode. With data inversion enabled, proper ones density will be maintained on the line.
2. B8ZS Mode (If Available)
B8ZS (bipolar with 8-zero substitution) mode was designed to correct for AMI's pulse density problem. B8ZS inserts BPVs at specific points in the data to allow the receiver to maintain sync. At the receiving end, any B8ZS BPV patterns are recognized and the correct data patterns are re-constructed.

Online tools

http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/basic_quagga - This tool generates a quagga BGP configuration file for you based on a few simple questions. Still in Beta
http://webapps.imagestream.com/tools/index.php/mikrotik - This tool generates a wan.conf, iptables, and quagga BGP configuration files based on the config file from your mikrotik router. Still in Beta

Packet flow inside the Linux Kernel

PacketFlow.png

Personal tools
Router software releases