Router Installation and Configuration Manual/Configuring a LAN Interface test

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This chapter describes how to configure the ImageStream router Ethernet and Token Ring interfaces, Ethernet VLAN subinterfaces and VRRP, and includes the following topics:
  • Understanding the Network Interface Configuration File
  • Default LAN Interface Configuration
  • Customizing the Configuration
  • Configuring Additional Ethernet Devices
  • Configuring Token Ring Interfaces
Before configuring the Ethernet or Token Ring interface, you must make the appropriate cabling connection for your needs. Refer to the hardware installation guide for your ImageStream product for information on making the LAN connection. See the Command Reference for more detailed command descriptions and instructions.
Configuration menu 
1. AAA (Password) Configuration 
2. Global configuration 
3. Network interface configuration 
4. Firewall and QOS configuration 
5. Service configuration  
6. Dynamic routing configuration 
7. Save configuration to flash 
0. ISis-Router main menu 
Next, select the "Network interface configuration" option by pressing 3 and Enter. This will open the ImageStream router’s primary configuration file, wan.conf in the default editor. The wan.conf file is also accessible from the command line in the /usr/local/sand directory.

Contents

Understanding the Network Interface Configuration File

wan.conf is the primary configuration file used by ImageStream's open source Inetics™ Architecture. Inetics handles configuration and management of all LAN and WAN devices on an ImageStream router. For more information about ImageStream's Inetics technology, visit the ImageStream Web site at http://www.imagestream.com/Inetics.html. See the Command Reference for more detailed command descriptions and instructions.
The default wan.conf file is:
! 
version 2.00 
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 ip address 10.10.199.199 255.0.0.0
!
interface Serial0 
 shutdown 
 description Port 0 
 encapsulation hdlc 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.252
!
# Set the default route via Serial0 using the device #ip route add 0.0.0.0/0 dev Serial0 
# Set the default route via Serial0 using an IP 
#ip route add default via 192.168.10.2 
! 
end 
The values in the default file are explained below.
version 2.00 - Denotes the version number of the configuration file and driver set. This value is set by ImageStream and should not be changed or modified.
interface Ethernet0 - Denotes the start of the configuration section for the first Ethernet device in your system. All commands that follow this line until the next ! mark will be applied to Ethernet0.
ip address 10.10.199.199 255.0.0.0 - Specifies the IP address and netmask for Ethernet0.
!, end - Signifies the end of a configuration section or the end of the wan.conf file. You must include a "!" to delimit each section of the configuration file and an "end" statement at the end of the file.
interface Serial0 - Denotes the start of the configuration section for the first Serial port in your system. All commands that follow this line until the next ! mark will be applied to Serial0.
shutdown - Instructs the router not to start this port when Inetics is started or reloaded.
description Port 0 - Sets a description for this device. The description is optional used for reporting purposes in other utilities. Setting a value here does not affect the operation of the port.
encapsulation hdlc - Specifies the Cisco HDLC protocol for this serial port.
ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.252 - Specifies the IP address and netmask for Serial0.
# Set the default route via Serial0 using the device - A comment inserted in the configuration file. Lines that begin with # or ! are ignored by Inetics when starting or reloading configurations.
#ip route add 0.0.0.0/0 dev Serial0 - A route statement setting the default route to the Serial0 device. This syntax can not be used to route via Ethernet interfaces properly. Note that this command is commented out, so it will be ignored by Inetics.
#ip route add default via 192.168.10.2 - A route statement setting the default route to the IP address of 192.168.10.2. Note that this command is commented out, so it will be ignored by Inetics. This command also uses the alternate default route designator of default instead of the numeric 0.0.0.0/0. The designators are equivalent.

Default LAN Interface Configuration

The default values of the 10/100 Mbps Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet on-board and expansion cards are as follows:
  • On-board Ethernet ports are always the first device(s) in the router. A router with one on-board Ethernet port and one expansion port will use Ethernet0 for the onboard port and Ethernet1 for the expansion port.
  • All 10/100 Mbps Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports are enabled. No port description is configured for any port.
  • All 10/100 Mbps Ethernet ports are set to autonegotiate speed and duplex. All Gigabit Ethernet ports are set to full duplex autonegotiation.
  • VLAN's are not configured.
  • Bridging is not configured.
  • VRRP is not configured.
Remember that default settings are not necessarily shown in the configuration file.

Customizing the Configuration

To customize the Ethernet port configurations, complete the following sections. The ordering of the commands is done by convention, but a specific order is not required. Likewise, all configurations are indented to make configurations easy to read, but indentation is not required. In general, ImageStream follows this ordering convention:
  1. Comments
  2. Port description
  3. Bandwidth scaling statement
  4. Other optional settings
  5. IP address/netmask
  6. Secondary IP addresses/netmasks
  7. VRRP configuration

Setting the Port Description

You can assign description to all 10/100 Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ports. Although this feature is optional, it may be particularly useful to assign names to facilitate administration. Setting a description does not change the operation or name of the port.
To assign a description to a port, enter this command in the wan.conf file in the Ethernet interface configuration section:
description string 
Using the router's default configuration below, we have added a description to Ethernet0:
!  
interface Ethernet0 
 description Office LAN 
 ip address 10.10.199.199 255.0.0.0
!

Configuring Duplex and Speed Settings

By default, all 10/100 Ethernet devices autonegotiate duplex and speed settings with the connected device. However, you can set different combinations of duplex and speed modes based on the requirements of your application or the connected device's capabilities. Most Ethernet hubs, as well as older Ethernet cards and wireless radios may not support MII autonegotiation of duplex and speeds.
To force a duplex setting on an Ethernet port, enter this command in the wan.conf file in the Ethernet interface configuration section:
duplex { auto | full | half } 
The auto, full, or half keyword configures the duplex operation on an interface. auto is the default setting. To force a speed setting on an Ethernet port, enter this command in the wan.conf file in the Ethernet interface configuration section:
speed { auto | 100 | 10 } 
The auto, 100 or 10 keyword configures the speed on an interface. auto is the default. The duplex and speed commands are not valid for 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports or Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Using the router's default configuration below, we have added duplex and speed settings to Ethernet0:
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto  
 speed auto  
 ip address 10.10.199.199 255.0.0.0 
! 
The table below describes the relationship between different combinations of the duplex and speed modes. The specified duplex command configured with the specified speed command produces the resulting action on the Ethernet port.
Relationship Between duplex and speed Commands
duplex Command speed Command Resulting Action by Ethernet Port
duplex auto speed auto Autonegotiates both speed and duplex modes
duplex half or full speed auto Autonegotiates both speed and duplex modes
duplex auto speed 10 Forces 10 Mbps and Autonegotiates duplex mode
duplex auto speed 100 Forces 100 Mbps and Autonegotiates duplex mode
duplex half speed 10 Forces 10 Mbps and half duplex
duplex full speed 10 Forces 10 Mbps and full duplex
duplex half speed 100 Forces 100 Mbps and half duplex
duplex full speed 100 Forces 100 Mbps and full duplex

Setting the IP Address and Netmask

During the initial installation process, you will set the IP address and netmask for the Ethernet interface. To change the IP address and netmask of the Ethernet interface from the default, modify the ip address command. The syntax of this command is
ip address ipaddress netmask 
Set the IP address to the address to be used by the router on your network. If you have divided your network into subnets, enter the subnet mask that identifies how your network addresses are divided between the network portion and the host portion.
Using the default configuration above, we have set the Ethernet0 IP address to 10.10.10.1 with a Class C netmask (/24, or 255.255.255.0). You will need to substitute your address and netmask for your network.
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
!

Setting a Dynamic IP Address via DHCP

Some routers, especially those connected to broadband Internet connections, may obtain an IP address from a DHCP server. To change the IP address and netmask of the Ethernet interface from the default, modify the ip address command to instruct the router to act as a DHCP client on this interface. The syntax of this DHCP client command is:
ip address dhcp [ client-id   { your-client-id }]	[ client-name	{ your-client-name }]
The client-id and client-name commands are optional. If your DHCP server, or your broadband provider, require a client ID or name, specify either one or both of these optional parameters as necessary. Using the default configuration above, we have set the Ethernet0 IP address to a dynamic IP address. When the router boots, or when the Inetics™ service is reloaded, the router will make a DHCP request on the Ethernet0 device and wait for a response from the DHCP server. The DHCP client will accept an IP address, netmask, default gateway IP, DNS server addresses, and domain name if supplied by the DHCP server.
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 description Cable Modem Connection duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address dhcp
!

Adding Secondary Ethernet Addresses

Depending on your network configuration, you may need to configure more than one address on an Ethernet device. This task is accomplished by adding the secondary keyword to the ip address line used previously. The secondary keyword is used for all addresses on an Ethernet device other than the primary address. Only one primary address can be configured on an Ethernet device. Configuring more than one primary address or leaving the secondary keyword off of a secondary address configuration will cause the last primary IP address to be used when the port is configured by SAND.
Using the default configuration above, we have added two secondary IP addresses to Ethernet0. You will need to substitute your address and netmask for your network.
!  
interface Ethernet0 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
!

Enabling or Disabling an Ethernet Interface

To disable an interface, use the shutdown interface configuration command. Unlike other command line interfaces, the wan.conf file does not require a "no" version of a command to reverse the operation. Entering "no" followed by a command will be ignored by SAND.
See the default configuration below to see how to enter the shutdown command.
!
interface Ethernet0 
 shutdown 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
! 
To enable Ethernet0 in the configuration, remove the shutdown command. Do not use "no shutdown", as this will be ignored by SAND. It is not necessary to enter "no" and a command to negate the command. Simply remove the command from the configuration file to enable the interface.
To disable an Ethernet interface, you must use the shutdown command. Disconnecting the Ethernet cable, removing the interface's IP address, or removing the interface from wan.conf does not disable the Ethernet interface. Only the shutdown command can disable an Ethernet interface.

Adding Comments to an Ethernet Configuration

Comments may be added to the Ethernet configuration, or anywhere in the wan.conf file by inserting a line that begins with the # symbol. The contents of the line will be ignored by SAND. Comments may be used to place contact information, ticket numbers, circuit IDs or any other information into the wan.conf file. There are no limits on the number or length of comments that may be inserted.
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 #Connects to DES-3326, Port 5 in 3rd floor wiring closet #Call Dave at x4653 for cable or port problems 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
!

Scaling the Interface Bandwidth Calculation

For some media, such as Ethernet and Token Ring, the bandwidth is fixed; for other media, such as serial lines, you can change the actual bandwidth by adjusting the hardware. For both classes of media, you can use the bandwidth configuration command to communicate the current bandwidth to the router's statistical output program and other programs. The bandwidth command sets an informational parameter only to communicate the current bandwidth to other programs. The bandwidth command does not adjust the actual bandwidth of an interface. For certain types of interfaces (Bonder, Ethernet, ATM, ports with integrated CSU/DSUs), the bandwidth value is automatically calculated for you. The syntax of the bandwidth command is:
bandwidth <bits per second>
Using the default example from above, you can see how we have added a bandwidth of 5 Mbps to the "Connection to co-lo" interface, Ethernet1:
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 #Connects to DES-3326, Port 5 in 3rd floor wiring closet #Call Dave at x4653 for cable or port problems 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
! 
interface Ethernet1 
 #NOC phone: 800-555-1212 - Our account #58935 description Connection to co-lo 
 bandwidth 5000000 
 ip address 63.67.72.155 255.255.255.0 
!

Configuring Additional Ethernet Devices

If your router is equipped with multiple Ethernet devices, you can add additional interface configurations to the wan.conf file. Although the order of the devices in the file does not matter, ImageStream by convention keeps the interfaces in order.
Additional Ethernet devices are configured in the same manner as the on-board Ethernet0 device. Add an additional interface command for each additional Ethernet port, separating each section with a ! symbol. The syntax of the interface command is:
interface DeviceName 
Using the default example above you can see how we added a second Ethernet port at Ethernet1.
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 #Connects to DES-3326, Port 5 in 3rd floor wiring closet #Call Dave at x4653 for cable or port problems 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
! 
interface Ethernet1 
 #NOC phone: 800-555-1212 - Our account #58935 description Connection to co-lo 
 bandwidth 5000000 
 ip address 63.67.72.155 255.255.255.0
!
interface Ethernet2
 description public servers
 ip address 20.215.25.1 255.255.254.0
!

Configuring Token Ring Devices

If your router is equipped with expansion Token Ring devices, you can add additional interface configurations to the wan.conf file. Although the order of the devices in the file does not matter, ImageStream by convention keeps the interfaces in order. Additional Token Ring devices are configured in the same manner as additional Ethernet devices. Add an additional interface command for each Token Ring port, beginning with TokenRing0 and separating each section with a ! symbol. The syntax of the interface command is:
 interface DeviceName

Using the default example above, we added a Token Ring port at TokenRing0.
! 
interface Ethernet0 
 #Connects to DES-3326, Port 5 in 3rd floor wiring closet #Call Dave at x4653 for cable or port problems 
 description Office LAN 
 duplex auto 
 speed auto 
 ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 
 ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.128 secondary 
 ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.254.0 secondary 
! 
interface Ethernet1 
 #NOC phone: 800-555-1212 - Our account #58935 description Connection to co-lo 
 bandwidth 5000000 
 ip address 63.67.72.155 255.255.255.0
!
interface TokenRing0
 description Legacy network
 ip address 20.215.25.1 255.255.254.0
!
Note: You must save the settings to the router's non-volatile flash memory! If the router is rebooted before saving, your changes will be lost! See Chapter 26, Router Installation and Configuration Manual/Backup/Restore Menu: Managing Configurations for more information.
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